SIMPLE SENTENCE STRUCTURE – ODDIY GAP TUZILISHI 2-dars


S + P + C + M – oddiy gap tuzish formulasi.
Bu yerda:
S – Subject. P – Predicate. C – Complement. M – Modifier.


S – Subject – ega.
S – Gapda ish-xarakatni bajaruvchi shaxs yoki narsa xisoblanadi va u who va what so’rog’iga javob beradi. Xar qanday gapda subject bo’lishi shart.

  • He jumps high – who jump high?
    Subject odatda predicatedan oldin keladi va ish xarakat sodir bo’lmagan gapda ma’no subject xaqida bo’ladi:
  • Coffee is delicious. – What’s delicious?
    Subject bitta va bir nechta so’zlardan tashkil topgan bo’lishi mumkin:
  • Tom runs fast – Bitta so’zlikka misol.
  • Old weak woman is crossing the road. Be careful! – Bir nechta so’zlikka misol.
    Ba’zi gaplarda subject o’z o’rnida kelmaydi. Masalan:
  • There is an apple.
    Bu yerda xaqiqiy subject apple, qalbaki ega esa there xisoblanadi. There ni qalbaki deyishimizga sabab so’roq
    savol tuzilishida ma’lum bo’ladi ya’ni suroq savol tuzilganda to be there dan oldinga utadi, bu esa
    subjectga xos emas.
    P – Predicate – kesim.
    P – ish-xarakat bajarilishini bildiradi va gapda subjectdan keyin keladi. U doim gapda bo’lishi shart.
  • Ted always cries.
    Predicate bir nechta so’zlardan tashkil topgan bo’lishi mumkin:
  • He is going home.
    Agar to be gapda ordinary verb (asosiy fe’l) shaklida kelsa, u o’zidan keyin kelgan complement bilan birga
    predicate xisoblanadi va bu turdagi gaplarning tarjimasiga “dir” kushimchasi kushiladi:
  • He is a student – U talabadir.
    C – Complement –to’ldiruvchi.
    C – predicatedan keyin keladi va uni to’ldiradi. Complement what va whom so’roqlariga javob beradi. Xar
    qanday gapda Complement bulishi shart emas.
  • I saw Bill – Whom did you see?
  • He took it – What did he take?
  • I sleep.
    Complement bir necha so’zlardan tashkil topgan bo’lishi mumkin:
  • Tom was driving his new car.
    M – Modifier – aniqlovchi.
    M – gapda complementdan keyin keladi va u gapga ko’shimcha ma’no berib aniqlashtiradi. Uni uch xil turi
    mavjud:

Modifier of time – ish-xarakatni qachon sodir etilganligini ko’rsatadi va When surog’iga javob beradi.
Modifier of place – ish-xarakatni qayerda sodir etilganligini ko’rsatadi va Where surog’iga javob beradi.
Modifier of manner – ish-xarakat qanday xolatda sodir etilganligini ko’satadi va How surog’iga javob
beradi.

  • I saw him yesterday – When did you see him?
  • I saw at school – Where did you see him?
  • I drive fast – How do you drive?
    Modifierlar ketma-ketligi: 1 – Modifier of manner, 2 – Modifier of place, 3 – Modifier of time.
  • Tom was running fast on the highway two days before.
    Agar gapda bittadan ortiq Modifier bo’lsa, Modifier of timeni gapning boshiga olishimiz mumkin va bunda
    gapning ma’nosi o’zgarmaydi:
  • Yesterday he was swimming in the pool.
  • He was swimming in the pool yesterday.
  • Ann my cousin and Tom have been learning English by their heart on the library for two hours.
  • Oddiy gap tuzulishi

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