INGLIZ TILIDA KO’PLIK SHAKLLARI plurals 5-dars


Qachonki biz ikki va undan ko’p narsa, predmet, xayvon, odam yoki joylar xaqida gapirsak pluraldan
foydalanamiz.
Otlarni asosan s xarfini qo’shish bilan pluralga aylantiriladi.

  • Dog – dogs.
  • Boy – boys.
    Agar ot p + s, k + s va f + s xarflari bilan tugasa, ularning talaffuzi s bo’ladi. Boshqa xollarda
    talaffuz z bilan aytiladi.
  • Shops.
  • Cliffs.
  • Weeks.
    Agar birlikdagi ot o, ch, sh, s, ss, x xarflari bilan tugasa, bunday otni ko’plik shaklini yasash uchun es
    qo’shimchasi qo’shiladi.
  • Church – churches.
  • Tomato – tomatoes.
    Exception rule!
    Ma’lum bir o xarfi bilan tugovchi so’zlar borki, ularning ko’plik shaklini yasash uchun tug’ridan tug’ri s
    xarfini qo’shamiz, bular:
    Dynamo (daynemeu), kilo, kimono, photo, soprano, zoo, video, kangaroo, piano.
    Agar birlikdagi ot consonant+y bilan tugasa uni ko’plik shaklini yasash uchun so’z oxiridagi y xarfini
    tushirib ies qo’shimchasi qo’shiladi.

Baby – babies.

Lady – ladies.

Agar birlikdagi ot vowel+yga tugasa, uni ko’plik shaklini s xarfini qo’shish bilan yasaladi.

Boy – boys.

Guy – guys.
Shunday 12 ta f, fe xarflari bilan tugovchi so’zlar borki, ularning ko’plik shaklini yasash uchun so’z oxiridagi
f, fe xarflarini tushirib, ularning o’rniga ves xarflarini qoyamiz:
Shelf – Shelves ———- Life -Lives
Calf -Calves ———- Self – Selves
Half – Halves ——— Sheaf – Sheaves
Knife – Knives ——– Thief – Thieves
Leaf – Leaves ——– Wolf – Wolves
Loaf – Loaves ——– wife – Wives
Quyidagi 4 ta so’zni ko’plik shaklini yasash uchun yo tug’ridan-tug’ri s xarfini yoki f tushirilib ves qo’shimchasi
qo’shiladi:

Scarf – scarfs – scarves.

Wharf – wharfs – wharves.

Dwarf – dwarfs – dwarves.

Hoof – hoofs – hooves.


Yuqoridagi 16 ta so’zdan tashqari qolgan barcha f, fe bilan tugovchi so’zlarni ko’plik shaklini yasash uchun s
xarfini qo’shamiz:

Cliff – cliffs.

Giraffe – giraffes.


Ba’zi otlarni ko’plik shaklini yasaganda shakl almashinishi sodir buladi va bunday so’zlarni ko’plik
shaklini yasash uchun s xarfi qo’shilmaydi:
Foot – feet, tooth – teeth, mouse – mice, child – children, ox – oxen, man – men, woman – women.
Ma’lum bir otlarni shakli birlikda xam ko’plikda xam bir xil. Ularning birlikda yoki kuplikda
ekanligini predicate yeki pronoun orqali bilib olamiz:
Sheep, fish, deer.
Exception rule!
Ba’zan fishes so’zi uchrab turadi, bunday xolda gapning ma’nosi baliqlarning soni bilan emas balki
baliqlarning turi to’grisida bo’ladi.

There are fish – baliqlar bor.

There are fishes – turli xil baliqlar bor.
Ba’zi-bir otlarni birlik shakli yo’q. Ular xamisha plural xisoblanadi va ular o’zidan keyin doim
koplikdagi fe’lni talab qiladi:
Police, clothes.

Police are coming.


Ikki qismdan tashkil topgan kiyim va asboblar mavjud. Bular xam xar doim plural xisoblanadi:
Kiyimlar,
Pants, trousers, pyjamas, etc…

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