Ingliz tilida artikllar 9-dars


Umumiy ma’lumotlar Artikl otlar oldida ishlatiladigan maxsus so‘zlardir. O‘zbek tilida
artikl mavjud emas. Artiklning alohida tarjimasi yo‘q. Ot oldida artiklning
ishlatilishi va ishlatilmasligining ahamiyati katta.

Ingliz tilida ikkita artikl bor: Noaniq artikl (The Indefi nite Article)
va aniq artikl (The Defi nite Article).

Noaniq artiklning ikkita shakli bor: a va an. An shakli unli tovushlar bilan boshlangan otlar oldida keladi: an opera, an apple, an hour. Qol gan
hollarda artiklning a shakli ishlatiladi:
a pen, a book, a student.

Aniq artiklning bitta shakli bor: the.

Noaniq artikl eski ingliz tilidagi an (bir) so‘zidan kelib chiqqan, shuning uchun ham u faqat birlikdagi otlar oldida ishlatiladi.

Aniq artikl eski ingliz tilidagi the (u, o‘sha) ko‘rsatish olmoshidan
kelib chiqqan bo‘lib, ba’zi hollarda hozir ham dastlabki ma’nosini saqlab
qolgan.

Noaniq artikl ishlatilganda otning biror turga (sinfga) mansubligi ni
bildiradi.

Aniq artikl otni boshqa shu turdagi otlardan ajratib ko‘rsatganda
ishlatiladi
.

TURDOSH OTLAR BILAN
NOANIQ ARTIKLNING ISHLATILISHI

Noaniq artikl biror turga mansub bo‘lgan birlikdagi shaxs yoki buyum
oldida ishlatiladi va qandaydir bir degan ma’noni bildiradi:


She has a watch of her own.
Uning o‘z soati bor.


He gave her a cigarette and lighted
it.
U unga sigareta berdi va uni yoqdi.


Ko‘plikda ot artiklsiz ishlatiladi. Agar miqdorni anglatmoqchi bo‘lsak,
some ishlatamiz:


I have brought you some flowers.
— Men sizga bir nechta gul
keltir dim.
— I hate to wear flowers…
— Men gul taqishni yomon ko‘raman.

Ot shaxs yoki buyumning kim yoki nima ekanligini ifodalasa no aniq
artikl bilan ishlatiladi. Bunday ot gapda:
a) ot kesimning tarkibiy qismi bo‘lib keladi:

My brother is an engineer.
Mening akam — muhandis.


His sister has become a doctor. Uning opasi doktor bo‘ldi.


This is a dictionary.
Bu lug‘atdir.


b) izohlovchi bo‘lib keladi:
Mr. A., a student of our Institute,
spoke at the meeting.
Janob A., institutimiz talabasi,
yig‘ilishda gapirdi.


Ko‘plikda artikl ham, some ham ishlatilmaydi.


They are good children, no doubt. Shubhasiz ular — yaxshi bolalar.


Izoh: Ot-kesim tarkibida kelgan yoki izohlovchi bo‘lib kelgan otning shu turdagi otlardan
ajratib ko‘rsatuvchi aniqlovchisi bo‘lsa shu ot aniq artikl bilan ishlatiladi:

These are the books you were looking for. Bular — siz axtargan kitoblar.


Mr. Ivanov, the inventor of this machine, is
an old friend of mine.
Janob Ivanov, bu mashinaning ixtirochisi, — mening eski do‘stim.


Agar izohlovchi mashhur kishilardan biri bo‘lsa ham ot aniq artikl bilan ishlatiladi:


Pushkin, the great Russian poet, was born
in 1799.
Pushkin, ulug‘ rus shoiri, 1799-yil da
tug‘ilgan.

Agar ot shu turdagi shaxs yoki buyumlarning istagan bir vakilini
ifodalasa, noaniq artikl bilan ishlatiladi va har bir, istagan ma’nosini beradi:


A child can understand it.
(Har bir) Bola buni tushina oladi.
A square has four sides.
Kvadratning to‘rtta tomoni bor.


Ko‘plikda noaniq artikl ishlatilmaydi va boshqa ko‘rsatkich ham kelmaydi:

Children can understand it.
Bolalar buni tushuna oladilar.

Squares have four sides.
Kvadratlarning to‘rt tomoni bor.

Suhbatdoshga hali noma’lum bo‘lgan shaxs yoki buyumni ifodalagan ot noaniq artikl bilan ishlatiladi. Bunda noaniq artiklining ma’nosi bir so‘zining ma’nosiga yaqinlashadi:


He bought a book yesterday.
U kecha (bir) kitob sotib oldi.

When I entered the room, I saw a
man standing at he window.
Men xonaga kirganimda deraza oldida turgan bir kishini ko‘rdim.


It happened in a small town in Siberia.
Bu Sibirdagi kichkina bir shaharchada yuz berdi.


Suhbatdoshga hali noma’lum bo‘lgan shaxs yoki buyum there is bilan berilganda ham noaniq artikl ishlatiladi:
There is a telephone in the room. Xonada telefon bor.

Ba’zi hollarda noaniq artikl bir ma’nosini to‘liq saqlab qolgan:

I shall come in an hour.
Men bir soatdan keyin kelaman.

He did not say a word.
U bir so‘z demadi.

I have bought a pound of sugar. Men bir funt (qadoq) shakar sotib oldim.

The price of this production is fi ve
shillings a kilogram.
Bu molning narxi bir kilogrammi
besh shillingdan.

Hundred — yuz, thousand — ming, million — million, score —
yigirma, dozen — dyujina
so‘zlaridan oldin one yoki noaniq artikl ishlatilishi mumkin:


He has won a (one)thousand dol￾lars.
U (bir) ming dollar yutib oldi.
The case weighs a (one) hundred
pounds.
Quti (bir) yuz fut keladi.

what dan keyin kelgan birlikdagi donalab sanaladigan ot oldida noaniq
artikl ishlatiladi va bu qurilma «Qanday …!» deb tarjima qili nadi:

What a clever man!
Qanday aqlli kishi!

What a fi ne building!
Qanday chiroyli bino!

Such, quite va rather ravishlaridan keyin kelgan birlikdagi donalab
sanaladigan ot oldida noanoq artikl ishlatiladi:

She is such a clever woman!
U shunday aqlli ayol!


She is quite a young girl!
U juda yosh qiz!


It is rather a long story.
Bu juda uzun hikoya.

Donalab sanaladigan birlikdagi otning oldida too, so bilan sifat kel￾ganda noaniq artikl ishlatiladi:

It is not so simple a problem as it
seems.
Bu ko‘ringanidek sodda mu￾ammo emas.
It is too urgent a matter to postpone.
Bu kechiktirish mumkin bo‘lma￾gan shoshilinch masala.

Noaniq artikl mavhum otlar oldida ham ishlatilishi mumkin. Bunda
sifat yoki his-tuyg‘uning biror turi tushuniladi va noaniq artikl a kind of,
such shunday bir ma’nosini beradi:

He showed a patience (a kind of
patience, such patience) that I had
never expected of him.
U men kutmagan (bir) toqatni
(bardoshni) namoyish qildi.

Taqqoslash: You must learn patience.
Siz bardoshni o‘rganishingiz kerak.

He opened the letter with an
excitement(such excitement) that
he could not conceal.
U xatni o‘zi yashira olmaydigan
(bir) hayajon bilan ochdi.

Taqqoslash: This telegram caused
excitement.
Bu telegramma hayajonga sabab
bo‘ldi.

There was an unusual warmth in
his words (a warmth that was unusual to him).
Uning so‘zlarida g‘ayriodatiy
(bir) iliqlik bor edi.

Taqqoslash: He spoke with warmth
about his friends.
U do‘stlari haqida iliqlik bilan
gapirdi.


Izoh: Konkretlashgan (aniqlashtirilgan) mavhum otlar oldida artikl umumiy qoidalarga
asosan ishlatiladi
:
This is a striking thought.
Bu hayratli fikr.


The thought of going to his native town
fi lled him with excitement.
Ona shahriga borish haqidagi fi kr uni
hayajonlantirdi.

The thoughts which he expressed on the
subject are very interesting.
Bu masalada u aytgan fi krlar juda qiziq.

Did you hear a noise just now?
Siz hozirgina shovqinni eshitdingizmi?

There’s too much noise. I can’t work here. Bu yerda juda shovqin ko‘p. Men bu yerda ishlay olmayman.

I bought a paper to read.
Men o‘qish uchun gazeta sotib oldim.

I need some paper to write on.
Menga yozish uchun qog‘oz kerak.

There’s a hair in my soup.
Sho‘rvamga soch tushibdi.

You’ve got very long hair.
Sochingiz juda uzun ekan.

You can stay with us. There is a spare
room.
Biz bilan qolsangiz bo‘ladi. Bu yerda
bo‘sh xona bor.

You can’t sit here. There isn’t room.
Bu yerga o‘tira olmaysiz. Bu yerda joy yo‘q.

I had some interesting experiences while I was away.
Men uydan uzoqda bo‘lganimda juda ko‘p qiziqarli voqealarni boshimdan kechirdim.

They offered me the job because I had a lot of experience.
Ular menga o‘sha ishni taklif qilishdi, chunki mening tajribam ko‘p edi.

Enjoy your holiday. Have a good time. Ta’tilni yaxshi o‘tkazing. Vaqtingiz chog‘ bo‘lsin.

I can’t wait. I haven’t got time.
Men kutolmayman. Vaqtim yo‘q

Quyidagi otlar ingliz tilida, odatda, donalab sanalmaydigan otlar hisoblanadi:
accommodation behaviour damage luck permission traffi c
advice bread furniture luggage progress weather
baggage chaos information news scenery work

I’m going to buy some bread.
Men non sotib olmoqchiman.

It’s nice weather today.
Bugun havo yaxshi.

We had a lot of luggage.
Bizning yukimiz ko‘p.

She was making great progress. U katta yutuqlarga erishayotgan edi.

They promised Jackson further assistance.
Ular Jeksonga muntazam yordam
berishga so‘z berishdi.

He told me of the progress he was
making.
U menga o‘zi erishayotgan muvaf￾faqiyatlar haqida so‘zlab ber di.

The news was so upsetting that she
said she would not see anyone that
night.
Yangilak shunchalik noxush edi￾ki, u o‘sha kechasi hech kimni ko‘rishni istamasligini aytdi.

Ammo permission — ruxsat, advice — maslahat, information — xabar
mavhum otlari konkretlashganda (aniqlashtirilganda) ham noaniq artikl bilan ishlatilmaydi:

He recieved permission to visit that
plant.
U o‘sha zavodga borish uchun
ruxsat oldi.

He sent us important information
on the state of the market.
U bozordagi vaziyat haqida biz￾ga muhim xabar yubordi.

He readily gives advice to every￾body who asks him for it.
U kim so‘rasa bajonudil masla￾hat beradi.

ANIQ ARTIKLNING TURDOSH OTLAR BILAN ISHLATILISHI

The aniq artikli that o‘sha ko‘rsatish olmoshidan kelib chiqqan. U birlik va koplikdagi donalab sanaladigan otlar va donalab sanalmaydi gan
otlar oldida ishlatiladi. Aniq artikl shaxs yoki buyumning shu tur dagi shaxs yoki buyumlardan ajratib ko‘rsatish uchun ishlatiladi va shu, o‘sha degan ma’noni beradi.

Otning shu turdagi shaxs yoki buymlardan ajratuvchi aniqlovchisi
bo‘lsa, aniq artikl bilan ishlatiladi:

The drawer of my writing table is
locked.
Meni yozuv stolimning g‘aladoni qulf.
Show me the telegram which was
recieved yesterday.

The workers who are discharging
the steamer will fi nish their work at
eight o’clock.
Paroxodni (yukini) bo‘shatayotgan
ishchilar ishlarini soat sakkizda
tamomlaydilar.

I like the fi lm that I saw yesterday.
Menga kecha ko‘rgan fi lmim yoq￾di.
There is the man who came here
yesterday.
Kecha kelgan kishi shu yerda.

The telegram brought by the secretary was very important.
Kotiba olib kelgan telegramma
juda muhim edi.

The walls of my room are painted
blue.
Meni xonamning devorlari ko‘kka
bo‘yalgan.

I have lost the key to my room. Xonamning kalitini yo‘qotdim.
The apples on that tree are quite ripe.
Ana u daraxtning olmalari juda pishgan.

The ore discovered by the expedi￾tion is of high quality.
Ekspeditsiya topgan ruda yuqori
sifatli.

The steel used in the construction
of this bridge was produced at the
Magnitagorsk plant.
Bu ko‘prikning qurilishiga ishlatilgan po‘lat Magnitagorskda ishlab chiqarilgan.

The water in this river is very cold. Bu daryoning suvi juda sovuq.
The honour of our country is very
dear to us.
Vatanimizning obro‘yi biz uchun
juda aziz.

To the joy of his friends he reco￾vered very quickly.
Uning tez tuzalganidan do‘stlari
xursand bo‘ldilar.
We study the geography of our
country.

Biz mamlakatimiz geografi yasini
o‘rganamiz.

I like the music of this ballet.
Menga bu baletning musiqasi yo￾qadi.

Qanday shaxs yoki buyum ekanligi vaziyat yoki matn mazmuni dan
ma’lum bo‘lgan ot aniq artikl bilan ishlatiladi:
Please, close the window.
Iltimos, derazani yoping (Hozir
ochiq bo‘lgan deraza haqida gap
ketayapti).

Where is the key?
Kalit qani? (qayerda?) (Shu eshik￾ning kaliti).

Put your book on the shelf. Kitobingizni tokchaga qo‘ying (Kitob turadigan tokcha, polka).

Pass me the bread, please.
Nonni uzatib yuboring, iltimos (oldimizda turgan nonni).

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